Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Augustus Caesar Works Cited Missing Augustus Caesar, the Rome's first obvious Emperor was the recorded figure who had the best effect upon the western world between the first light of human progress and the finish of the medieval times. Augustus Caesar (31B.C. - 14 A.D.) was initially named Gaius Octivian, the name Augustus was allowed by the Roman Senate, which implies wonderful. The achievement of Augustus was he built up a genuine government, and during his rule, he remade numerous structures to improve the Roman Empire, which included sanctuaries and streets with old style. He made an proficient postal help that supported facilitated commerce among the locale. The spirit intensity of Augustus had set up him to disperse the long remaining of Rome. Augustus Caesar didn't pick up his position without any problem. He was the received beneficiary of Julius Caesar, and he accomplished his position and held it without meeting with a similar destiny as his Uncle Julius Caesar. Augustus needed to carry the individuals to his side and win the help of the military so as to pick up his trust from the senate. He had raised his own military. In the mean time, huge numbers of the senate was against Imprint Antony, who was the correct hand man of Julius Caesar and furthermore needed to turn into the beneficiary. The pioneer of the senate, Cicero, figured it out Augustus was a helpful back street, requested Angustus to make war on Antony what's more, constrained him to withdrew to Gaul, yet Cicero neglected to do as such (Scarre, 17). Since during 43B.C. Augustus walked on Rome with his military, and constrained the senate to acknowledge him as a delegate (Scarre, 17). Later on, Augustus met Antony and Lepidus and the three of them began to shape a triumvirate, which avoided the senate power. They isolated three pieces of the Roman Empire. Antony took the east, Augustus took the west, and Lepidus away to Africa, since he was no long an equivalent accomplice (Scarre, 17). Augustus began to increase a few notoriety in the west; then Antony had left and vanquished Egypt so as to pick up his fame. Sadly he wedded the sovereign of Egypt, Cleopatra, which was a shameful to Rome. Augustus raised his very own multitude to battle Antony. The fight occurred in Actium, furthermore, Augustus won the fight. What's more, Egypt was additionally vanquished by Augustus and it turned into another domain of Rome. Augustus' by and large strategy was to keep the military foundation at the base ne... ... had brought individuals a superior living. Augustus built up a productive postal assistance before the finish of his rule, which gave the Romans the bit of leeway to exchange unreservedly with different regions. In any case, the postal framework was just utilized for magnificent use what's more, not for open use. He make the postal administrations by picking a Magistrate of the Roads close to Rome, and their obligation was to release to the allocated pioneer for every trunk street, and did by messengers positioned along the principle streets, which the dispatches would answer questions identifying with the dispatches that he conveyed, performed the entire excursion, with changes of ponies, in a similar carriage (Homles, 35). Despite the fact that, the postal frameworks were just for royal use, the letters that they composed were obligated. Augustus Caesar was a sole ruler during his rule; he remained in power for practically 50 years. He worked for the past and what's to come intentionally, carried harmony and thriving to the individuals previously and furthermore later on. Augustus progression was to control Rome in a shrewd way, without influencing the senate. After he kicked the bucket at the period of seventy-five, the individuals of the Roman Empire venerated him as a divine being.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Jenna Compton Reaction Paper Sociology 101 Social separation is the means by which we rank individuals in the public arena concurring totheir riches, instruction, occupation and salary. I accept we are classified into various classes, for example, high society, working class, upper white collar class, lower working class, and lower class. In my general public we can accomplish a status, by getting a degree or endeavoring to climb in a position. In my Life I see social separation inside my family. Firstly,there are two salaries in by family, my dad and my mom subsequently placing us in a higher position or rank.Often I see companions who originate from single parent families andthey don?t have as much as I do. I would consider my friend?s lower-white collar class and I upper working class. Besides, my parent?s as people both have high pay which is additionally an approach to assign social delineation. My beau has one parent and he is one outof four kids which brings in cash more tight ly However, in my familythere are just two kids which gets more cash-flow to go around. I likewise observe indicationsof social delineation in instruction since it impacts your occupation and salary. I am fortunate enough that my family has enough cash to send me to school, yetthere are friendsof mine who are much more fortunate than me who can bear the cost of tuition based schools, for example, Harvard, having the option to manage the cost of this most probable putsthem in a higher classthen me. I believethere to be sure connection among's training and cash Peopleoften will see membersof a higher social separation appear to have comparative practices. Higher social classes have higher standardsof living. I see this when individuals come into eat at my cafÃ©, individuals who are rich act diversely thanthe individuals who are white collar class. Social delineation is arranged into a wide range of gatherings. Definition isoften controlled by pay, riches, occupation and instruction. I n today?s society we can accomplish status by investing amounts of energy into a vocation or unique tutoring, for example, school. Regular individuals can see differentiations between upper, center and, lower class.
Wednesday, July 29, 2020
What Are the Research Domain Criteria Basics Print Overview of the Research Domain Criteria (RDOC) Approach By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder and 7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety. Learn about our editorial policy Arlin Cuncic Updated on June 28, 2019 Getty / Tom Werner More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming In This Article Table of Contents Expand History of RDoC Structure of RDoC Negative Valence Systems Positive Valence Systems Cognitive Systems Systems for Social Processes Arousal/Regulatory Systems Sensorimotor Systems Purpose of RDoC RDoC vs. DSM and ICD View All Back To Top The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) is a research framework for new approaches to understanding and treating mental disorders. This conceptual framework was designed to integrate various types of information including genetics, molecules, cells, circuitry, behavior, physiology, and self-report. In addition, the RDoC considers a range of behavior from normal to abnormal rather than being a diagnostic guide with categories. In this way, The RDoC is not currently meant to replace diagnostic systems. Rather, it has an aim to aid understanding of mental health and to guide research to identify effective treatments. History of RDoC The RDoC was developed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to be a biologically valid approach that incorporated genetics, neuroscience, and behavioral science. It grew out of criticism levied by NIMH director Thomas Insel in 2013 regarding the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) failure to base diagnoses on objective laboratory measures. Insel argued that patients deserved better and the RDoc was launched based on four assumptions: Diagnoses must be based on biology as well as on symptoms.Mental disorders involve brain circuitry and therefore are biological illnesses.Levels of analysis must be considered across dimensions of function.Mapping of different aspects of disorders will aid the development of targeted treatments. Experts then focused on various domains and identified constructs for research. Structure of RDoC The Research Domain Criteria are made up of five domains, each containing a set of constructs that include elements, processes, mechanisms, and responses. They are listed briefly below. It also refers to units of analysis, which are molecular, genetic, circuitry, and behavioral. An RDoc matrix is also available that shows how the domains, constructs, and units of analysis all relate to each other. It is also understood that the matrix will change as new research emerges. Negative Valence Systems The negative valence systems domain refers to responses to adverse situations such as fear, anxiety, or loss. Acute Threat (Fear) The fear construct refers to the activation of the brain to engage behaviors that protect you from perceived danger. Fear may be elicited by internal and external events and influenced by a variety of factors. For example, when faced with an unfriendly dog, your fear might motivate you to escape to a safe place. Acute fear would be most akin to a phobic reaction. Potential Threat (Anxiety) Different from fear, anxiety refers to the brain system that responds to potential threat that is distant, not clearly defined, or unlikely to happen. Anxiety results in you scanning for risks instead of running for safety. Anxiety described in this way would be most akin to generalized anxiety. Sustained Threat Unlike acute threat or potential threat, sustained threat refers to an emotional state caused by prolonged exposure to situations (internal or external) that it would be adaptive to avoid or escape. Exposure to this situation (whether it is actual or anticipated) has long-lasting effects of emotions, thinking, and your body long after the threat is gone. Sustained threat described in this way would be most akin to post-traumatic stress. Loss Loss refers to losses of any kind that cause grief or sustained loss-related behaviors such as losing a loved one, ending a relationship, losing your home, etc. Loss defined in this way, and its outcomes, would be most comparable to the symptoms of depression. Frustrative Nonreward Frustrative nonreward refers to not obtaining something or having it taken away, and the effects that this has on a person. What to Know About Negative Reinforcement Positive Valence Systems Positive Valence Systems refers to responses to positive situations such as reward-seeking behavior. Reward Responsiveness What is your response to expecting to receive a reward, receiving a reward, and repeatedly receiving a reward? This is what reward responsiveness measures. It has three sub-constructs as follows: Reward Anticipation - This refers to how you anticipate a reward in the future in terms of your language, behavior, and neural systems.Initial Response to Reward - This refers to your brain responses, speech, and behavior when receiving a reward.Reward Satiation - This refers to how a reward changes for you over time as you receive it repeatedly, in terms of what you say, how you act, and how your brain responds. Reward Learning Reward learning refers to how you change your behavior to adapt to the circumstances of rewards. It has three sub-constructs as outlined below: Probabilistic and Reinforcement Learning - This refers to you learning what to do to receive a reward, even when your behavior does not always give you that reward.Reward Prediction Error - This refers to assimilating information about rewards being different than what you expected, such as when they are larger or smaller than predicted.Habit - Habit refers to those things you learn to do and that become automatic. Often they start out as being motivated by rewards, but may eventually just continue on out of force of habit and be resistant to change. Habits can become unhelpful in this way. Reward Valuation Reward valuation refers to everything related to you deciding the value of a reward and is influenced by things like social context, biases, memory, and deprivation. It has three sub-constructs as outlined below: Reward (ambiguity/risk) - A reward is valued in terms of its size, positive versus negative elements, and how predictable it is. Delay - Delay refers to deciding how valuable a reward is based on its size and how long it will be before you get it. Effort - Effort refers to you deciding how valuable a reward is based on its size and how much effort you need to expend to get it. Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation Cognitive Systems The cognitive systems domain refers to all your cognitive processes. Attention Attention refers to everything related to accessing limited capacity systems including awareness, perception, and motor action. Perception Perception refers to the processes involved in representing your external environment, getting information from it, and making predictions about it. Perception consists of three sub-constructs: Visual Perception, Auditory Perception, and Olfactory/Somatosensory/Multimodal/Perception. Declarative Memory Declarative memory refers to memory for facts and events. Language Language refers to how we represent the world and concepts through verbal communication. Cognitive Control This refers to your ability to make decisions about your cognitive and emotional systems to guide your behavior. It consists of three sub-constructs: Goal Selection, Updating, Representation, and Maintenance; Response Selection; Inhibition/Suppression; and Performance Monitoring. Working Memory Finally, working memory refers to updating of goal and task information and consists of four sub-constructs: Active Maintenance, Flexible updating, Limited Capacity, and Inference Control. Systems for Social Processes Systems for Social Processes refers to how you relate to other people including perceptions and interpretation. Affiliation and Attachment Affiliation refers to engaging with others in social interaction while attachment is developing social bonds. Each of these involves a range of processes such as detecting social cues. Social Communication ?Social communication refers to how you communicate with other people. This involves processes such as recognizing emotions, eye contact, etc. It involves four subconstructs: Reception of Facial Communication, Production of Facial Communication, Reception of Non-Facial Communication, and Production of Non-Facial Communication. Perception and Understanding of Self Perception and Understanding of Self refers to understanding and making judgments about yourself. This might involve processes such as recognizing your emotional state and self-monitoring. It includes two sub-constructs: Agency and Self-Knowledge. Perception and Understanding of Others Perception and Understanding of Others refers to the processes involved in perceiving and understanding other people. It includes three subconstructs: Animacy Perception, Action Perception, and Understanding Mental States. Arousal/Regulatory Systems Arousal/Regulatory Systems refers to homeostatic regulation of systems for sleep, energy balance, etc. Arousal Arousal refers to sensitivity to external and internal stimuli and can be regulated by homeostatic drives such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex. Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms refers to the timing of your biological systems for optimal physical and mental health. Sleep and wakefulness Sleep and wakefulness refers to all processes involved in sleep and is affected by homeostatic regulation. Sensorimotor Systems Sensorimotor systems refers to how you learn to control and execute motor behaviors. Motor Actions This refers to all processes related to engaging in motors actions. It involves the following sub-constructs: Action Planning and Selection, Sensorimotor Dynamics, Initiation, Execution, Inhibition and termination, Agency and ownership, Habit, and Innate motor patterns. Purpose of RDoC What is the purpose of the Research Domain Criteria? Whereas currently, mental disorders are understood in terms of categories based on symptoms, the RDoC proposes that mental illness is better understood based on neuroscience. What is the underlying disease process that is causing your symptoms? That is what RDoC researchers want to determine. Its not so much important that you have a cluster of symptoms that have been labeled as depression. Rather, they want to identify each symptom that you have and trace it back to its neurobiological roots. Its really a fascinating approach! What if we could link your biology to your dysfunctional thoughts? What if we could figure out measurable characteristics of you that relate to the symptoms that you are experiencing? The value in this approach is that it brings together clinical and basic sciences to identify aspects of disorders that span different areas including executive functioning, perception, emotion, etc. So, the purpose of the RDoC is to encourage research that identifies underlying causes of mental illness and how to determine how to treat them. RDoC vs. DSM and ICD How does the RDoC differ from other systems like the DSM and International Classification of Diseases (ICD)? Just an aside: The ICD is the most popular alternative to the DSM, is created by the World Health Organization, and is used to track prevalence and for health insurance purposes. First, the RDoC was not designed to replace the DSM or ICDâ"at least not right now. Its purpose is to be a research framework, particularly since the NIMH chose to no longer use the DSM as criteria for clinical trials.Second, the RDoC is dimensional rather than categorical. It describes behavior in a range from normal to abnormal, rather than in terms of either/or clinical diagnoses.Third, it works from the ground up, starting with brain-behavior relations and linking those to clinical symptoms. On the other hand, DSM and ICD work from the top-down, starting with categories and determining what fits in those categories.Fourth, RDoC incorporates a wider range of data such as genetics, biology, and physiology, whereas the DSM only incorporates symptom reports or observations. In this way, if a diagnosis was ever based on RDoC, it was related to the underlying causes of dysfunction and any treatment would be very targeted. In this way, it follows the medical model approach in the hopes of finding better treatments. A Word From Verywell Are you still confused about RDoc? In a nutshell, this research framework can be thought of as a very granular way of looking at mental illness and how to treat it. Because in the end, it is the treatment that is the goal of research. Imagine if you will that youre experiencing symptoms of depression. A psychologist would diagnose you according to the DSM with depression, and youd receive talk therapy and/or medication. According to RDoC, each of your symptoms would be examined independently in terms of the underlying biological and neurological causes to determine the best treatment(s) for you. Thats, of course, a very long way outâ"these are just at the research phase right now. But, that is the future, and it looks much more promising than the system that we currently have in place to diagnose and treat mental illness. Overview of Psychological Disorders and How They Are Diagnosed
Friday, May 22, 2020
Introduction Foraging for wild plants and hunting wild animals is the most ancient of human subsistence patterns. Prior to 10,000 years ago, all people lived in this way. Hunting and gathering continues to be the subsistence pattern of some societies around the world including the !Kung. The !Kung population is located in the Kalahari Desert, in isolated parts of Botswana, Angola, and Namibia. The !Kung live in a harsh environment with temperatures during the winter frequently below freezing, but during the summer well above 100F. The !Kung, like most hunter-gatherer societies, have a division of labor based mainly on gender and age. (Body) Gender in the Division of Labor For the most part in the !Kung society the men do theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nevertheless, men spend only a small fraction of the time that women do in the company of children, especially infants. The women are responsible for the less pleasant tasks of child care, such as toileting, cleaning and bathing, and nose wiping. However most parents prefer to leave all but the youngest children in the village while they gather: food collection is more efficient that way, and distances traveled can be greater. Also, most children want to stay at home with the other children: playing with friends is highly preferable to the stressful travel and long hours often involved in gathering. Age There is a large difference in age between boys and girls in terms of their development into adults and their roles in subsistence. !Kung children have no schools, nor are they expected to contribute to subsistence, to care for younger children, or to help out much around the village, except for occasionally collecting water. Because little formal teaching is done, observation and practice are the basis of all learning. It is this way that many of the skills are learned that will make them productive adults. A mans hunting skills and inclinations are fostered early in childhood, often beginning when he is only a toddler. Toy bows and arrows are given to small children at a young age. StationaryShow MoreRelatedMarjorie Shostak: the Life and Words of Nisa a Kung Women1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages| !Kung Women | | | | Ã¢â¬Å"Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman,Ã¢â¬ written by Marjorie Shostak; is a culturally shocking and extremely touching book about a woman who had gone through many struggles and horrific tragedies in her life. This book also emphasizes the perspective of most of the women in the society. There are many striking issues in this book that the people of the !KungÃ tribe go through.Ã Marjorie Shostak, an anthropologist, has written this book and studiedRead MoreEssay on Nisa Life and Words of a Kung Woman633 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNisa: The life and words of a !kung woman:response Ã¢â¬Å"Nisa: the life and words of a !kung womanÃ¢â¬ written by Marjorie Shostak is a book about a woman named nisa of the !kung people. It entails the stories of her struggles and the many horrific tragedies in her life and how it shapes who and how she is. The book Is basically an interview of a fifty year old nisa, it is written in her perspective of what it is like to live in such a society. She suffered quite a few devastating tragedies as aforementionedRead MoreMarriage Play : The Life And Words Of A ! Kung Woman1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesplays an essential part in lives of !Kung women. Marjorie Shostack in depth describes each step of NisaÃ¢â¬â¢s life in her book Ã¢â¬Å"The Life and Words of a ! Kung WomanÃ¢â¬ . Nisa, a fifty year old !Kung San woman, tells about her numerous marriages, husbands and lovers. Nisa vividly described the relationships between men and women. Furthermore, she states that children become aware of sex at a young age because the children sha re a single hut with their parents. In the !Kung society, first marriages are arrangedRead MoreKung! Essay example864 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages 1. Ernestine Friedl says that the position of women is higher the more they are involved in (l) primary subsistence (as owners or controllers, NOT merely as laborers) and (2) the PUBLIC distribution of the product of subsistence. Use this argument to account for the position of women in Kung society. Make sure you use both part (l) and part (2) of FriedlÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. (Do not worry that FriedlÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is simplistic; she is not trying to say that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s role in subsistence is the ONLYRead More!Kung and Nisa Essay1238 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe book, Ã¢â¬Å"Nisa The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman,Ã¢â¬ written by Marjorie Shostak is a culturally shocking and touching book about a woman who had gone through many struggles and horrific tragedies in her life. This book also highlights the perspective of most of the women in the society. There are many issues in this book that the people of the !Kung tribe goes through. Out of all the women in the tribe Shostak had made close connections with a fifty-year-old woman named Nisa. According to ShostakRead MoreThe Epic Of Gilgamesh, By Ralph Waldo861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRalph Waldo wrote life is a journey, not a destination. This quote is occasionally used to give meaning to the trails one faces in their life. As for our protagonist, Gilgamesh, this quote embodies what he went through. Epic, stunishing and dramatic are adjectives easily given to describe this mythical script. By carefully analyzing Gilgamesh s story, we find hints of how he came to the glorious ending to his quest. Nevertheless, the women in this epic poem play a small but very powerful roleRead MoreAnalysis Of Nisa The Life And Words Of A ! Kung1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLife and death are experienced throughout the country, which occurs every day around the world. We all experience dealing with death or life rather it s pertaining to a family member, friend, associate or even a co-worker. Life and death effect the population rates amongst the globe. People views, practices, and feelings differ from different religions and cultures. Each culture is unique and obtains different beliefs and rituals. According to the book Nisa The Life and Words of a !Kung WomanRead MoreKung Women Essays1768 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages1. Ernestine Friedl says that the position of women is higher the more they are involved in (1) Primary subsistence (as owners or controllers, NOT merely as laborers) and (2) the PUBLIC distribution of the product of subsistence. Use this argument to account for the position of women in !Kung society. Make sure you use both part (1) and part (2) of FriedlÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. The !Kung are hunter-gatherers of Southern Africa and the women play an essential role in the production of subsistenceRead MoreCultural Diversity : The And Words Of A ! Kung Woman And Saheri From Saheri s Choice1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdiscussed Nisa from our reading Nisa: The Life and words of a !Kung Woman and Saheri from SaheriÃ¢â¬â¢s Choice: Arranged Marriages in India a video. We examined the difference between NisaÃ¢â¬â¢s arranged marriage and SaheriÃ¢â¬â¢s positives that both women see the marriage. First, a positive thing for Nisa is she gets gifts like the beads, she gets a place to live. For Saheri being married was her becoming a mature adult, having the freedom that an adult has and having a household of her own. In contrast, Nisa hadRead MoreDifferent Sources of Variation in Marriage and Mating Systems in the !Kung San Hunter-Gatherer and the Yanomamo Horticulturalist Societies1932 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesbetween groups that create variation in human social orga nization (Walker et al. 2011). This paper explores the sources of variation in marriage and mating systems in two very different societies, the !Kung San and the Yanomamo, in terms of the vastly different environments each of them inhabit. The !Kung San, a traditional nomadic hunter-gatherer society, reside in the Dobe area on the edge of the Kalahari desert of Botswana (Shostak 1981, p.7). Due to the demanding environment of the desert, the San
Saturday, May 9, 2020
The Fundamentals of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Revealed The Advantages of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors For instance, if you're writing an essay on How Global Warming can be decreased, it's going to be a great idea which you take a minute to define what global warming is about in your introductory paragraph. All you will need is to select the one which reflects your private interest and acknowledgment. The conclusion can be composed of a few sentences. Your conclusion does not need to have to be complex or extraordinary. The Good, the Bad and Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Homework ought to be banned. In English Language, compositions or essays actually are one of the most essential facets of the subject. Academic papers can't contain any signals of plagiarism. School tests aren't effective. To choose which subject you're likely to discuss, it's crucial to see the complete collection of good persuasive speech topics from the special area of study. 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Parent classes are essential for parents who wish to adopt. For a Church it could be a new program for kids. All parents ought to be asked to attend parenting classes before having a kid.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The antebellum period in America was one of rapid change. With the ideals of Romanticism at hand, people were in the frame of mind to improve society in order to reach this state of perfection that according to the movement was indeed attainable. American reform movements between 1820 and 1860 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic views of human nature and society with regards to education, temperance, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. We will write a custom essay sample on The Antebellum Period in America or any similar topic only for you Order Now There were great efforts for education reform between 1820 and 1860. Horace Mann of Massachusetts was one such leader of education reform. In Massachusetts, he restructured thee educational system so that the school year was longer and educators were better paid. Moreover, by the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s there were tax funded elementary schools in existence in many states. However,only seventy-two percent of white children in the North were actually enrolled in school. In the South the figures were more dismal; about one-third of white children were enrolled in school and blacks had no opportunity to be. In addition, some teachers of this time period were barely literate. Despite the great push for education reform by reformers such as Horace Mann, there were still flaws with the education provided, making education reform reflect both optimistic and pessimistic views. Temperance too was widely supported by reformers of the period but caused controversy and bitterness. During the antebellum, there was and overproduction and abundance of alcohol in America; so much so that the average male drank about three times as much as one would today. As alcohol was so readily available in all areas of the nation and affecting so much of the population, there were many outspoken groups arguing for abstinence against liquor. The Protestants, as a whole, were rather outspoken for they argued that it placed a great strain on the women as they their men could not support their families while in some sort of drunken stupor. As this movement went on, many joined and pledged their abstinence from liquor. However, as the movement went on to include other alcoholic items such as beer and wine issues arose. As many Catholic immigrants also used alcohol as a part of their social activity, the temperance movementÃ¢â¬â¢s call for abstinence from all alcohol came to be a problem for Catholic-Protestant interactions. Therefore, temperance too reflected both the optimistic and pessimistic views. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights too had its high and low points. For as womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right did rally a great deal of support largely in the form of women, women Ã¢â¬â¢s rights were often viewed as a secondary cause once compared to abolition. In this time period, there were, however, advances in the cause of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman physician, came to be in this period. Equality of the sexes was also largely supported by the Quakers. The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights convention at Seneca Falls of 1848 was momentous for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights as well as it was there that the Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of SentimentsÃ¢â¬ emerged. This Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of SentimentsÃ¢â¬ would call for the end of separate Ã¢â¬Å"spheresÃ¢â¬ for women and men. However, many of the demands made in this declaration would go unaddressed for quite some time; women only get the right to vote in the twentieth century. Many women reformers too were attacked for being so outspoken. Thus, for the advancements made, there were still issues remaining and unaddressed. As with nearly all things, education, temperance, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights between 1820 and 1860 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic views. While Horace Mann called for longer running, better funded schools, there were still schools that employed individuals who were barely literate. Although temperance would aid women as they suffered when their men were drunk, it caused friction between Protestants and Catholics. Furthermore, though Quakers were supportive of equal rights for women, a large portion of men throughout the nation were not so open to the idea of equality between the sexes. Therefore, these movements exhibited both optimistic and pessimistic views of human nature and society. How to cite The Antebellum Period in America, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The Trial of Socrates The Trial of Socrates Socrates is certainly not guilty of the crimes he is accused of. He is not corrupting the youth of Athens and he does indeed believe in gods. His manner is uncommon and because of that he is feared by his accusers (Meletus, Anytus, Lycon, et al.). Justice will be miscarried if he is put to death. Meletus has brought before the court the accusation that Socrates does not believe in the gods of Greece, but at the same time claims that he is a believer of other divinities. This is a contradiction, for to believe in one god alone, or even that divinity exists means that Socrates must believe in the gods to which divinity is attributed. In "Apology" Socrates says: "Does any man, Meletus, believe in human affairs who does not believe in human beings?...No, my good sir, no man could... Does any man believe in divine activities who does not believe in divinities?" To this Meletus answers "No one". Socrates has, in fact, dedicated his life as a sort of service to the gods as prescribed to him by the Oracle at Delphi. The Oracle said that Socrates was the wisest man. He was trying to refute this claim as a bestowal to the gods, for he communicated with them after each encounter he had with the supposed wise men of Athens. The other accusation brought against Socrates is that he is corrupting the youth of Athens by charging them money for his teachings. This cannot be true if Socrates does not consider himself a teacher, but a mere seeker of truth, and challenges his accusers to find evidence that he received any money in his quest for truth. He indeed has followers and they are present at the trial. What Does he teach them that might be so harsh as to deserve to be put to death? He tells them that they should place the importance of the soul above that of wealth. They are not corrupted by him, they just enjoy watching him prove others wrong. The real crime that he is being charged with is the embarrassing of ?wise' men. Nothing more. Was Socrates being inconsistant with his views of which laws he should be most loyal to (his conscience or the laws of the state)?