Friday, May 22, 2020

Nisa the Life and Words of a !Kung Women Essay - 2258 Words

Introduction Foraging for wild plants and hunting wild animals is the most ancient of human subsistence patterns. Prior to 10,000 years ago, all people lived in this way. Hunting and gathering continues to be the subsistence pattern of some societies around the world including the !Kung. The !Kung population is located in the Kalahari Desert, in isolated parts of Botswana, Angola, and Namibia. The !Kung live in a harsh environment with temperatures during the winter frequently below freezing, but during the summer well above 100F. The !Kung, like most hunter-gatherer societies, have a division of labor based mainly on gender and age. (Body) Gender in the Division of Labor For the most part in the !Kung society the men do the†¦show more content†¦Nevertheless, men spend only a small fraction of the time that women do in the company of children, especially infants. The women are responsible for the less pleasant tasks of child care, such as toileting, cleaning and bathing, and nose wiping. However most parents prefer to leave all but the youngest children in the village while they gather: food collection is more efficient that way, and distances traveled can be greater. Also, most children want to stay at home with the other children: playing with friends is highly preferable to the stressful travel and long hours often involved in gathering. Age There is a large difference in age between boys and girls in terms of their development into adults and their roles in subsistence. !Kung children have no schools, nor are they expected to contribute to subsistence, to care for younger children, or to help out much around the village, except for occasionally collecting water. Because little formal teaching is done, observation and practice are the basis of all learning. It is this way that many of the skills are learned that will make them productive adults. A mans hunting skills and inclinations are fostered early in childhood, often beginning when he is only a toddler. Toy bows and arrows are given to small children at a young age. StationaryShow MoreRelatedMarjorie Shostak: the Life and Words of Nisa a Kung Women1257 Words   |  6 Pages| !Kung Women | | | | â€Å"Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman,† written by Marjorie Shostak; is a culturally shocking and extremely touching book about a woman who had gone through many struggles and horrific tragedies in her life. This book also emphasizes the perspective of most of the women in the society. There are many striking issues in this book that the people of the !Kung  tribe go through.  Marjorie Shostak, an anthropologist, has written this book and studiedRead MoreEssay on Nisa Life and Words of a Kung Woman633 Words   |  3 PagesNisa: The life and words of a !kung woman:response â€Å"Nisa: the life and words of a !kung woman† written by Marjorie Shostak is a book about a woman named nisa of the !kung people. It entails the stories of her struggles and the many horrific tragedies in her life and how it shapes who and how she is. The book Is basically an interview of a fifty year old nisa, it is written in her perspective of what it is like to live in such a society. She suffered quite a few devastating tragedies as aforementionedRead MoreMarriage Play : The Life And Words Of A ! Kung Woman1151 Words   |  5 Pagesplays an essential part in lives of !Kung women. Marjorie Shostack in depth describes each step of Nisa’s life in her book â€Å"The Life and Words of a ! Kung Woman†. Nisa, a fifty year old !Kung San woman, tells about her numerous marriages, husbands and lovers. Nisa vividly described the relationships between men and women. Furthermore, she states that children become aware of sex at a young age because the children sha re a single hut with their parents. In the !Kung society, first marriages are arrangedRead MoreKung! Essay example864 Words   |  4 Pages 1. Ernestine Friedl says that the position of women is higher the more they are involved in (l) primary subsistence (as owners or controllers, NOT merely as laborers) and (2) the PUBLIC distribution of the product of subsistence. Use this argument to account for the position of women in Kung society. Make sure you use both part (l) and part (2) of Friedl’s argument. (Do not worry that Friedl’s argument is simplistic; she is not trying to say that women’s role in subsistence is the ONLYRead More!Kung and Nisa Essay1238 Words   |  5 PagesThe book, â€Å"Nisa The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman,† written by Marjorie Shostak is a culturally shocking and touching book about a woman who had gone through many struggles and horrific tragedies in her life. This book also highlights the perspective of most of the women in the society. There are many issues in this book that the people of the !Kung tribe goes through. Out of all the women in the tribe Shostak had made close connections with a fifty-year-old woman named Nisa. According to ShostakRead MoreThe Epic Of Gilgamesh, By Ralph Waldo861 Words   |  4 PagesRalph Waldo wrote life is a journey, not a destination. This quote is occasionally used to give meaning to the trails one faces in their life. As for our protagonist, Gilgamesh, this quote embodies what he went through. Epic, stunishing and dramatic are adjectives easily given to describe this mythical script. By carefully analyzing Gilgamesh s story, we find hints of how he came to the glorious ending to his quest. Nevertheless, the women in this epic poem play a small but very powerful roleRead MoreAnalysis Of Nisa The Life And Words Of A ! Kung1518 Words   |  7 PagesLife and death are experienced throughout the country, which occurs every day around the world. We all experience dealing with death or life rather it s pertaining to a family member, friend, associate or even a co-worker. Life and death effect the population rates amongst the globe. People views, practices, and feelings differ from different religions and cultures. Each culture is unique and obtains different beliefs and rituals. According to the book Nisa The Life and Words of a !Kung WomanRead MoreKung Women Essays1768 Words   |  8 Pages1. Ernestine Friedl says that the position of women is higher the more they are involved in (1) Primary subsistence (as owners or controllers, NOT merely as laborers) and (2) the PUBLIC distribution of the product of subsistence. Use this argument to account for the position of women in !Kung society. Make sure you use both part (1) and part (2) of Friedl’s argument. The !Kung are hunter-gatherers of Southern Africa and the women play an essential role in the production of subsistenceRead MoreCultural Diversity : The And Words Of A ! Kung Woman And Saheri From Saheri s Choice1197 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscussed Nisa from our reading Nisa: The Life and words of a !Kung Woman and Saheri from Saheri’s Choice: Arranged Marriages in India a video. We examined the difference between Nisa’s arranged marriage and Saheri’s positives that both women see the marriage. First, a positive thing for Nisa is she gets gifts like the beads, she gets a place to live. For Saheri being married was her becoming a mature adult, having the freedom that an adult has and having a household of her own. In contrast, Nisa hadRead MoreDifferent Sources of Variation in Marriage and Mating Systems in the !Kung San Hunter-Gatherer and the Yanomamo Horticulturalist Societies1932 Words   |  8 Pagesbetween groups that create variation in human social orga nization (Walker et al. 2011). This paper explores the sources of variation in marriage and mating systems in two very different societies, the !Kung San and the Yanomamo, in terms of the vastly different environments each of them inhabit. The !Kung San, a traditional nomadic hunter-gatherer society, reside in the Dobe area on the edge of the Kalahari desert of Botswana (Shostak 1981, p.7). Due to the demanding environment of the desert, the San

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Fundamentals of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Revealed

The Fundamentals of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Revealed The Advantages of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors For instance, if you're writing an essay on How Global Warming can be decreased, it's going to be a great idea which you take a minute to define what global warming is about in your introductory paragraph. All you will need is to select the one which reflects your private interest and acknowledgment. The conclusion can be composed of a few sentences. Your conclusion does not need to have to be complex or extraordinary. The Good, the Bad and Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Homework ought to be banned. In English Language, compositions or essays actually are one of the most essential facets of the subject. Academic papers can't contain any signals of plagiarism. School tests aren't effective. To choose which subject you're likely to discuss, it's crucial to see the complete collection of good persuasive speech topics from the special area of study. If you study science, you should choose an appropriate topic. In case the topic is too locally confined, it is going to be difficult to research. Your high school research topics have to be focused and concise, and interesting, but in addition broad in their very own way so you can discover enough data to back up your thesis. All you will need is to select the field you're good at. These steps and tips will allow you to choose decent research paper topics. The next easy scholarships have application processes which are a little more manageable. If it's very broad, you're going to be overwhelmed and experience troubles when trying to organize your data. The Ugly Side of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Let's say that you're writing an essay on The key causes of Road Accidents in your City, it's obvious you're going to produce a couple points. It's critical to be original and be yourself. Somebody works part-time and doesn't have sufficient time to do all of the assignments. Writing good compositions is vital in the English Language in the feeling that it permits the student to have the ability to express what is in her or his mind regarding a specific matter. Thanks to the correct option of presentation style and a thorough understanding of the goals you need to accomplish in your essay, there are plenty of categories essay themes may be broken into. To put it differently, just what purpose do you want to express in your essay. A persuasive essay is a powerful tool when you want to supply a new vision of a specific topic for the reader. If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Moreover, you could branch out by yourself by searching online for scholarships in your region. Therefore, it's far better to begin your scholarship search earlier rather than later so that you don't lose out on any excellent opportunities. Write about what's vital and interesting to understand and learn about. Unless you're writing for college admissions, a wonderful personal essay has rather few restrictions. As the writer, it's your sole obligation to judge just what exactly you would like to accomplish with your essay once you're done with that. There's no ideal essay. Our aim is to supply you with a professionally written es say on the subject you require. Many scholarship applications ask similar questions and require similar info, so in the event you apply to a single program, you might also apply to a bunch. The man is likely to forget some points. All students ought to be asked to perform a single year of community support. Generally the toughest part of developing a descriptive essay is picking the topic. The structure wasn't mine. When you have finished with your composition, it is exceedingly important you take a minute and read over what you have written. The Principles of Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors You Will be Able to Learn From Beginning Today Writing articles can be a fantastic method to obtain exposure to your goods and your site. Adding a minumum of one article for each purpose to your newsletter consistently will be able to help you construct your theme or template of which articles that you'll need to include in each individual issue you provide. Tell our experts what sort of homework help on the internet you want to get. It isn't possible to produce an actual friend online. Finding Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors on the Web Year round school isn't a good idea. For instance, if you're going to compose some articles about renewable energy then the TV can provide you some genuine great ideas about what's going on around the world concerning renewable energy sources. Whispered Good Essay Topics for High School Seniors Secrets School uniforms should be deemed necessary. Parent classes are essential for parents who wish to adopt. For a Church it could be a new program for kids. All parents ought to be asked to attend parenting classes before having a kid.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Antebellum Period in America Free Essays

The antebellum period in America was one of rapid change. With the ideals of Romanticism at hand, people were in the frame of mind to improve society in order to reach this state of perfection that according to the movement was indeed attainable. American reform movements between 1820 and 1860 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic views of human nature and society with regards to education, temperance, and women’s rights. We will write a custom essay sample on The Antebellum Period in America or any similar topic only for you Order Now There were great efforts for education reform between 1820 and 1860. Horace Mann of Massachusetts was one such leader of education reform. In Massachusetts, he restructured thee educational system so that the school year was longer and educators were better paid. Moreover, by the 1950’s there were tax funded elementary schools in existence in many states. However,only seventy-two percent of white children in the North were actually enrolled in school. In the South the figures were more dismal; about one-third of white children were enrolled in school and blacks had no opportunity to be. In addition, some teachers of this time period were barely literate. Despite the great push for education reform by reformers such as Horace Mann, there were still flaws with the education provided, making education reform reflect both optimistic and pessimistic views. Temperance too was widely supported by reformers of the period but caused controversy and bitterness. During the antebellum, there was and overproduction and abundance of alcohol in America; so much so that the average male drank about three times as much as one would today. As alcohol was so readily available in all areas of the nation and affecting so much of the population, there were many outspoken groups arguing for abstinence against liquor. The Protestants, as a whole, were rather outspoken for they argued that it placed a great strain on the women as they their men could not support their families while in some sort of drunken stupor. As this movement went on, many joined and pledged their abstinence from liquor. However, as the movement went on to include other alcoholic items such as beer and wine issues arose. As many Catholic immigrants also used alcohol as a part of their social activity, the temperance movement’s call for abstinence from all alcohol came to be a problem for Catholic-Protestant interactions. Therefore, temperance too reflected both the optimistic and pessimistic views. Women’s rights too had its high and low points. For as women’s right did rally a great deal of support largely in the form of women, women ’s rights were often viewed as a secondary cause once compared to abolition. In this time period, there were, however, advances in the cause of women’s rights. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman physician, came to be in this period. Equality of the sexes was also largely supported by the Quakers. The Women’s Rights convention at Seneca Falls of 1848 was momentous for women’s rights as well as it was there that the â€Å"Declaration of Sentiments† emerged. This â€Å"Declaration of Sentiments† would call for the end of separate â€Å"spheres† for women and men. However, many of the demands made in this declaration would go unaddressed for quite some time; women only get the right to vote in the twentieth century. Many women reformers too were attacked for being so outspoken. Thus, for the advancements made, there were still issues remaining and unaddressed. As with nearly all things, education, temperance, and women’s rights between 1820 and 1860 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic views. While Horace Mann called for longer running, better funded schools, there were still schools that employed individuals who were barely literate. Although temperance would aid women as they suffered when their men were drunk, it caused friction between Protestants and Catholics. Furthermore, though Quakers were supportive of equal rights for women, a large portion of men throughout the nation were not so open to the idea of equality between the sexes. Therefore, these movements exhibited both optimistic and pessimistic views of human nature and society. How to cite The Antebellum Period in America, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The Trial Of Socrates Essays - Socratic Dialogues, Socrates

The Trial of Socrates The Trial of Socrates Socrates is certainly not guilty of the crimes he is accused of. He is not corrupting the youth of Athens and he does indeed believe in gods. His manner is uncommon and because of that he is feared by his accusers (Meletus, Anytus, Lycon, et al.). Justice will be miscarried if he is put to death. Meletus has brought before the court the accusation that Socrates does not believe in the gods of Greece, but at the same time claims that he is a believer of other divinities. This is a contradiction, for to believe in one god alone, or even that divinity exists means that Socrates must believe in the gods to which divinity is attributed. In "Apology" Socrates says: "Does any man, Meletus, believe in human affairs who does not believe in human beings?...No, my good sir, no man could... Does any man believe in divine activities who does not believe in divinities?" To this Meletus answers "No one". Socrates has, in fact, dedicated his life as a sort of service to the gods as prescribed to him by the Oracle at Delphi. The Oracle said that Socrates was the wisest man. He was trying to refute this claim as a bestowal to the gods, for he communicated with them after each encounter he had with the supposed wise men of Athens. The other accusation brought against Socrates is that he is corrupting the youth of Athens by charging them money for his teachings. This cannot be true if Socrates does not consider himself a teacher, but a mere seeker of truth, and challenges his accusers to find evidence that he received any money in his quest for truth. He indeed has followers and they are present at the trial. What Does he teach them that might be so harsh as to deserve to be put to death? He tells them that they should place the importance of the soul above that of wealth. They are not corrupted by him, they just enjoy watching him prove others wrong. The real crime that he is being charged with is the embarrassing of ?wise' men. Nothing more. Was Socrates being inconsistant with his views of which laws he should be most loyal to (his conscience or the laws of the state)?

Friday, March 20, 2020

Cellular Mobile System Capacity influenced by Handoff protection strategies The WritePass Journal

Cellular Mobile System Capacity influenced by Handoff protection strategies ABSTRACT: Cellular Mobile System Capacity influenced by Handoff protection strategies ABSTRACT:INTRODUCTION:1. BACKGROUNDS:1.1 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION:2. Current status and development of research:2.1 Literature survey:2.2 EVALUVATION:2.3 OUTLOOK:REFERENCES:Related ABSTRACT: Today, there   is a large number of mobile user groups and In that, the need of   service of mobile user group   plays a great dispute on the utilization of bandwidth. The radio frequency spectrum is an inadequate resource, to improve service quality and system capacity radio spectrum should be carefully planned. Research is carried out to improve system capacity and service quality. Admission capability is highlighted by the system capacity and the service quality relates to the connection continuity. This proposal reveals the impact of protection, which is used to improve   the strength of the   capacity of cellular mobile systems. Traffic model is established by using the mobility characteristics of the real world. The relation between admission capability and channel reservation is given by the markov’s approach. The proposed dynamic reservation scheme is proposed to provide handoff coordination between the service quality and system capacity. INTRODUCTION: The evolution of cellular mobile systems began with the first generation (1G) cellular systems introduction, and pass on through second generation (2G) and continuing third generation (3G ), featuring the development into the fourth generation (4G) systems. This generation systems are divided based upon the coding, modulation, and multiple access techniques which are used. First public mobile telephone system (MTS) began operation in 25 American cities. In this system contains an efficient transmitter on tall building with in the city and the   permanent single channel is assigned to mobile cellular phone   for sending and receiving data through the concept of push-to-talk. Late 1960s, improved MTS(IMTS) implemented and dual channels for sending and receiving the data. In the starting of   cellular mobile systems there very few number of users. In New York, 12 calls only simultaneously supported over 1000 square mile area. In 1968, Bell laboratories demonstrated the concept of   cellular system. In the cellular concept contains 2-way communication. This type of communication used hexagonal , N-cell frequency reuse pattern by using the intracellular mobile stations (MS), which are controlled by a base station (BS). The factors which improve the capacity of cellular system are handoff, frequency reuse and sectorization . By decreasing the power of BS in the cell, in another BS the particular frequency can be reused which is remotely far away. Handoff between stations intensively increases the flexibility provided to the customer. This in turn improves the capacity and user access area is also expanded. signal processing technology   and very large scale integration (VLSI) were   developed in 1980s, which paved the route for the digital era. In this generation digital signal processor are used for the 2G cellular. ASICs are used, which reduced the size of mobile phones and new signal processing   features. Second generation systems are of digital nature, which offered   elementary data services and improved voice quality compared to that of previous generation. 2G systems were designed for the improvement of communication. In 1G radio signals are analog where as in 2G systems radio signals are digital. 2G systems are mainly developed into the CDMA and TDMA systems based on the type of multiplexing is used. in less popular areas digital signals are not reaching the tower. In digital signal call completely fails to connect when the signal strength is less, where as in analog systems it used to gradually drop. 3G is the generation of mobile phones and telecommunications. In 3G different countries used different types of radio interfaces. Mainly used radio interface is W-CDMA, FDMA is also used in this generation. 3G has various application such as mobile tv, video demand, video conferencing etc. In this generation the users increased enormously, the demand for channels also increased. The main impact on the system capacity and quality of service provided by the service provider. Researches where conducted to increase the system capacity and to decrease the call failing during the handoff. The main issue of the mobile system is the design. Radio spectrum is limited, which must be shared by several users. Each is cell is allocated with the portion of the total frequency of the spectrum. Users in the particular cell can use the channel allocated to that cell. Different cells can use the same channel separated by the minimum distance between the cells because to reduce the co-channel interference. There are three types of channel allocation techniques, they are fixed channel allocation, dynamic channel allocation, hybrid channel allocation. 1. BACKGROUNDS: In cellular systems, the number of mobile systems under a base station is random and time varying. The users of mobile systems move between cells, so there will be variations in the number of users under the particular base station. So there are lots of variations which causes the traffic and handoff of mobile systems. In the third generation mobile communication systems there is lot of research work is carrying. The objective of the research is to offer personalized and integrated services for the mobile users with the service quality than that of fixed users. In the third generation there is lot of demand for the personal communication, there is explosive growth of the user community because its available for affordable price. Increase in the   mobile customers and the   need   of   diversity   will be a great challenge to utilize the bandwidth. The radio spectrum is limited it should be carefully planned for the usage. The research work on radio channel allocation mainly focuses on the admission capability and connection continuity. It gives out the compressed channel exploitation , which in turn maximizes the number of channels. If there is any special variation in requirement of the service, full admission capacity can’t   be achieved by fixed channel allocation [1]. We are considering the dynamic channel allocation (DCA)[2]due to this service request imbalance. In DCA, channels are allocated according to the service requests distribution and load sharing also improve the   user admission capacity. 1.1 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION: The initial connection requests to start new calls are considered to improve the user accommodation capability. Accommodation capacity is based upon the admission capability of new user. Since the user moves around, its needed to establish the connection many number of times with in a single call duration. The user accommodation capacity also depends upon the connection continuity. Impulsive call break takes place when a cellular mobile user transfers from its serving cell into a new one [8], but it is not sure that channel is assigned in the different cell to remain in connection. Protecting the connection continuity is studied extensively. The basic techniques which are used to establish connection continuity for mobile users include guard channel[3], predictive channel reservation and handoff queuing. The other techniques of   handoff   protection are subrating, channel sharing and channel carrying [4]. Handoff protection strategy acquire pessimistic effect on the new user admission. The intake of new users in to the system are reduced by the priority based handoff protection schemes   such as guard channel, handoff queuing, and predictive channel reservation. particular portion of the available channels are confined to only the new users by the Guard channel , so guard channel elimination on the new user admission is apparent. Smaller impact on the new user admission is the advantage of handoff queuing over the guard channel. Assume, both handoff queuing and guard channel techniques contains the equal number of   nominal channels, the over lapping cell structure infatuated by handoff queuing, which   leads to the higher   channel density than guard channel. So the minimum impact of the channel queuing can be attributed to the increase number of nominal channels. To differentiate   these   techniques, let us observe the case   which is   similar channel set is deploy ed to envelop the same service area with implementation of   the two strategies respectively. The cell Overlapping layout demands a huge amount of the reuse factor in order to continue the co-channel interference distance, compared to that of guard channel strategy   only fewer nominal channels per cell present in the handoff queuing strategy, since the other technique does not need   the cell overlapping structure. Both the number of guard channels and non-guard channels may be equal. Equal level of handoff protection can be achieved by substituting guarded channels for handoff queuing. Due to exchange problems in handoff queuing , new call admission capability and handoff protection cont be realized. though reservation channels are not properly used, new users are blocked by the predictive channel reservation. New user admission capability consists of some   disadvantages because of handoff protection. In order to over come these constrains researches investigated chances for better providing handoff protection. In [5] Oh and Tcha introduced the division of nominal channels to protect and unprotect channel sets in order to minimize the handoff failure. Therefore a predefined grade of service satisfies the expected results for the   above proposed division of nominal channels. The functioning of handoff protection and new user admission is affected due to adding or removing the guard channels. If the handoff requests are less then the new users access guard channel because of dynamic channel allocation[7]. 2. Current status and development of research: 2.1 Literature survey: If   an user being engaged in a call connection, then he said to be active. The   number of   factors influence the active time that include walking or driving, speed, impediment and delay at street intersections, traffic density around, shopping intensions and so on. For this dwelling time   negative exponential function is good approximation to the probability distribution   through the assumption of various factors. when an active mobile user   found to be approaching cell boundary, then the   Channel reservation for handoff   is conducted. The speed and position of active mobile user are monitored to calculate the remaining time left connection with the particular current cell. If the remaining time falls below threshold is known as channel reservation interval ( CRI). After confirming the the intention of transfer of the call to the new cell, target cell receives the request for the channel reservation. if there is any ideal channel in the target cell then it is reserved and it is known as locked which means temporarily it cont be used by any other. If in the target cell does not contain any free channels then the reservation request will be in a queue. After   channel is emptied   in the target cell, the request queue searches   to find any requests which are to be processed. The   request   leaves the queue by assigning it to the free channel. A released channel remains to be free until next channel requests for it when an queue is empty. After sending the reservation request the mobile user can end this current call connection. In this situation the target cell receives reservation cancellation request from the user. After receiving a cancellation request the locked channel will be released by the the target cell after processing corresponding reservation request. We assume CRI to be accurate enough that call completion is the single account for a mobile user not to show up at ending of the CRI. If channel has been reserved to take it over or blocked for mobile user, then the target cell handoff will be successful. Whereas in the previous cases the mobile user continues its call on the new channel until leaving or call completion while in the later on into termination [8], since new call is not prioritized, if a free channel exists then new user will be accepted or else it is blocked and cleared from the system. The follo wing figure describes the working process of reservation admission in the flowchart. Markov Approach   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A markov model is implemented for analysis of the some of active channels and the number of reservation requests which are to be processed. Consider   for each cell C   number of channels are allocated   and buffer size limit for requesting queue is S. The transition rates of the neighbouring channels are obtained as follows. Before channel reduction new calls and handoff calls are entertained, consider the gross arrival rate as the transition rate.   When a handoff call reserves one channel for later use, immediately new call takes one channel for the later use. Whenever all channels have been occupied new call is rejected and reservation request is queued upto maximum length of S, which in result get a transition rate equal to the arrival rate of the channel reservation requests only. Reservation of a channel extends the channel holding time from channel utilization interval(CUI) to channel occupation interval (COI). COI is also assumed that it is exponentially distributed, the mean value of which is obtained by[8] The expected value of the inactive period of a reserved channel before the   utilization of channel is known as the dormant period, dormant period is stated dependent that longer dormancy can be expected and written as [8] The average dormant time on state n is given as [8] Let Fx(t) is considered as the cpd (Cumulative probability distribution ) of the time interval before the ( X + 1)th channel release. The Fx(t) can be written as Fx(t) [8] We   canapproximate the sojurn of a request in the queue, which has   to be exponentially distributed to give out a time independent request. The   living rate that has the value equal to 1/Tcri. The state probabilities are given by 2.2 EVALUVATION: Traffic model supports assures mobility properties and certain geometry in real-world cell plan. Where as manhattan model considers a classic city scenario which is regarded as by the   association of buildings, big structures with streets. In the manhattan model the connection distracts, when a mobile user roams in the streets, a street corner and suffers a sharp signal strength path loss. Handoff protection with prudent channel usage decreases the user accommodation capacity. In the markov approach, accommodation capacity is evaluvated by using the single over the entire system. 2.3 OUTLOOK: In this paper, we have discussed the impact of   on capacity of the cellular mobile systems by the channel reservation. A user should receive un disrupted service through out the life time   after admission which is known as capacity. By using the handoff protection, capability of new user admission increases to that of connection continuity. user accommodation capacity is weakened by handoff protection. Which indicates system capacity and service quality are conflicting objectives. So tradeoff is cont be eliminated. Our further research to be carried out on channel reservation with out degrading the system capacity REFERENCES: [1] S.Jordan and A.Khan, â€Å"A Performance bound on dynamic channel allocation in cellular systems: equal load†. [2] D.Everitt and N. MacFayden, â€Å"analysis of multicellular mobile radio telephone systems with loss.† [3] K. Yeung and T.S. Yum, â€Å"Compact pattern based dynamic channel assignment for cellular mobile systems.† [4] â€Å"channel carrying: A novel handoff scheme for mobile cellular networks.† [5] S. H. Oh and D. W. Tcha, â€Å"prioritized channel assignment in a cellular radio network.† [6] F. A. Cruz-Perez, D. Lara-Rodriguez and M. Lara â€Å" fractional channel reservation in mobile communication systems.† [7] Y. C. Kim, D. E. Lee, B. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, â€Å"Dynamic channel reservation based on mobility in wireless ATM networks.† [8] Yi Xu, Quan Long Ding, Chi Chung Ko, â€Å"impact of handoff protection strategies on cellular mobile system capacity.†

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Biography of Curtis LeMay, U.S. Air Force General

Biography of Curtis LeMay, U.S. Air Force General Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906NOctober 1, 1990) was a U.S. Air Force general who became famous for leading a bombing campaign in the Pacific during World War II. After the war, he served as the leader of the Strategic Air Command, the U.S. military division responsible for most of the countrys nuclear weapons. LeMay later ran as George Wallaces running mate in the 1968 presidential election. Fast Facts: Curtis LeMay Known For: LeMay was an important U.S. Army Air Corps leader during World War II and led the Strategic Air Command during the early years of the Cold War.Born: November 15, 1906 in Columbus, OhioParents: Erving and Arizona LeMayDied: October 1, 1990 at March Air Force Base, CaliforniaEducation: Ohio State University (B.S. in Civil Engineering)Awards and Honors: U.S. Distinguished Service Cross, French Legion of Honour, British Distinguished Flying CrossSpouse: Helen Estelle Maitland (m. 1934–1992)Children: Patricia Jane LeMay Lodge Early Life Curtis Emerson LeMay was born on November 15, 1906, in Colombus, Ohio, to Erving and Arizona LeMay. Raised in his hometown, LeMay later attended Ohio State University, where he studied civil engineering and was a member of the National Society of Pershing Rifles. In 1928, after graduating, he joined the U.S. Army Air Corps as a flying cadet and was sent to Kelly Field, Texas, for flight training. The following year, LeMay received his commission as a second lieutenant in the Army Reserve. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the regular army in 1930. Military Career First assigned to the 27th Pursuit Squadron at Selfridge Field, Michigan, LeMay spent the next seven years in fighter assignments until he was transferred to bombers in 1937. While serving with the 2nd Bomb Group, LeMay participated in the first mass flight of B-17s to South America, which won the group the Mackay Trophy for outstanding aerial achievement. He also worked to pioneer air routes to Africa and Europe. A relentless trainer, LeMay subjected his aircrews to constant drills, believing this was the best way to save lives in the air. His approach earned him the nickname Iron Ass. World War II Following the outbreak of World War II, LeMay, then a lieutenant colonel, set about training the 305th Bombardment Group and led them as they deployed to England in October 1942 as part of the Eighth Air Force. While leading the 305th in battle, LeMay helped develop key defensive formations such as the combat box, which was used by B-17s during missions over occupied Europe. Given command of the 4th Bombardment Wing, he was promoted to brigadier general in September 1943 and oversaw the units transformation into the 3rd Bomb Division. Known for his bravery in combat, LeMay personally led several missions including the Regensburg section of the August 17, 1943 Schweinfurt-Regensburg raid. LeMay led 146 B-17s from England to their target in Germany and then onto bases in Africa. As the bombers were operating beyond the range of escorts, the formation suffered heavy casualties, with 24 aircraft lost. Due to his success in Europe, LeMay was transferred to the China-Burma-India theater in August 1944 to command the new XX Bomber Command. Based in China, the XX Bomber Command oversaw B-29 raids on Japan. After the capture of the Marianas Islands, LeMay was transferred to the XXI Bomber Command in January 1945. Operating from bases on Guam, Tinian, and Saipan, LeMays B-29s routinely struck targets in Japanese cities. After assessing the results of his early raids from China and the Marianas, LeMay found that high-altitude bombing was proving ineffective over Japan, largely due to poor weather. As Japanese air defenses precluded low- and medium-altitude daylight bombing, LeMay ordered his bombers to strike at night using incendiary bombs. Following tactics pioneered by the British over Germany, LeMays bombers began firebombing Japanese cities. As the predominant building material in Japan was wood, the incendiary weapons proved very effective, frequently creating firestorms that reduced entire neighborhoods. The raids struck 64 cities between March and August 1945 and killed around 330,000 people. Although they were brutal, LeMays tactics were endorsed by Presidents Roosevelt and Truman as a method for destroying the war industry and preventing the need to invade Japan. Berlin Airlift After the war, LeMay served in administrative positions before being assigned to command U.S. Air Forces in Europe in October 1947. The following June, LeMay organized air operations for the Berlin Airlift after the Soviets blocked all ground access to the city. With the airlift up and running, LeMay was brought back to the U.S. to head up the Strategic Air Command (SAC). Upon taking command, LeMay found SAC in poor condition and consisting of only a few undermanned B-29 groups. LeMay set about transforming SAC into the USAFs premier offensive weapon. Strategic Air Command Over the next nine years, LeMay oversaw the acquisition of a fleet of all-jet bombers and the creation of a new command and control system that allowed for an unprecedented level of readiness. When he was promoted to full general in 1951, LeMay became the youngest to attain the rank since Ulysses S. Grant. As the United States principal means of delivering nuclear weapons, SAC built numerous new airfields and developed an elaborate system of midair refueling to enable their aircraft to strike at the Soviet Union. While leading SAC, LeMay began the process of adding intercontinental ballistic missiles to SACs inventory and incorporating them as a vital element of the nations nuclear arsenal. Chief of Staff for the US Air Force After leaving SAC in 1957, LeMay was appointed Vice Chief of Staff for the U.S. Air Force. Four years later, he was promoted to chief of staff. In this role, LeMay made policy his belief that strategic air campaigns should take precedence over tactical strikes and ground support. As a result, the Air Force began procuring aircraft suited for this type of approach. During his tenure, LeMay repeatedly clashed with his superiors, including Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Secretary of the Air Force Eugene Zuckert, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs General Maxwell Taylor. In the early 1960s, LeMay successfully defended the Air Forces budgets and began to utilize satellite technology. Sometimes a controversial figure, LeMay was seen as a warmonger during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis when he loudly argued with President John F. Kennedy and Secretary McNamara regarding air strikes against Soviet positions on the island. LeMay opposed Kennedys naval blockade and favored invading Cuba even after the Soviets withdrew. In the years after Kennedys death, LeMay began to voice his displeasure with President Lyndon Johnsons policies in Vietnam. In the early days of the Vietnam War, LeMay had called for a widespread strategic bombing campaign directed against North Vietnams industrial plants and infrastructure. Unwilling to expand the conflict, Johnson limited American air strikes to interdictive and tactical missions, for which U.S. aircraft were poorly suited. In February 1965, after dealing with intense criticism, Johnson and McNamara forced LeMay into retirement. Later Life After moving to California, LeMay was approached to challenge incumbent Senator Thomas Kuchel in the 1968 Republican primary. He declined and elected instead to run for the vice presidency under George Wallace on the American Independent Party ticket. Though he had originally supported Richard Nixon, LeMay had become concerned that Nixon would accept nuclear parity with the Soviets and would take a conciliatory approach to Vietnam. LeMays association with Wallace was controversial, as the latter was known for his strong support of segregation. After the two were defeated at the polls, LeMay retired from public life and declined further calls to run for office. Death LeMay died on October 1, 1990, after a long retirement. He was buried at the U.S. Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs, Colorado. Legacy LeMay is best remembered as a military hero who played a major role in the modernization of the U.S. Air Force. For his service and achievements he was awarded numerous medals by the U.S. and other governments, including those of Britain, France, Belgium, and Sweden. LeMay was also inducted into the International Air Space Hall of Fame.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Employment-At-Will Doctrine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Employment-At-Will Doctrine - Essay Example Given her educational background, it is already a behavioral and attitude issue more than learning issue. Also, given that she had a chance to perform and still did not even after months of training and support, it would be appropriate to talk to her about her performance (there might other factors why has learning issue such as personal problems) that if she does not improve, she may be asked to leave the company. After months of dismal performance even with training and support is already enough ground to terminate her employment â€Å"at will† unless otherwise stated or implied that she has contract with the company (Gibson et al., 2010). 2. The employee tends to burst into a rage when criticized and is frequently late to work as noticed by her boss and other staff members. When her boss attempts to address her behavioral issues and the company late policy, the employee’s response is that she â€Å"knows her rights and what to do† if she is wrongfully discharg ed. She also says she took a business law class in undergrad that taught her â€Å"everything she needs to know about exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine and wrongful discharge in violation of public policy†. ... There are only few categories in the exemptions of the employment of will that can be invoked which are discrimination, public policy exemptions, implied contractual relationship and Sabarnes Oxley Act (Radin and Werhane, 2003). Tardiness is both attitude and performance issue which does not fall into the exemptions of â€Å"employment of will† and is a valid ground for termination. 3. The employee takes a day off from work, without management consent, for her religious holiday observance that falls on a day that is during â€Å"tax season†. The day off occurred during an incredibly busy period for the company during which the employer had notified all employees they were not allowed to take off without prior management approval. Also, there is no labor union for accountants. However, she begins talking to her co-workers during lunch breaks and sometimes during regular work hours, encouraging them to organize and form a union to â€Å"protect ourselves†. Describe what steps you would take to address the following scenario involving policies and procedures: It may be tempting to â€Å"fire† the employee to get rid of the many problems she brings but that would not be a prudent course of action for the management. Firing her might be construed as a discrimination against her religion and an exemption for â€Å"employment at will† (Sennel, 2008). In addition, the company might also be accused of either discriminating against fair labor practice or might fall in the exception of Sabarnes Oxley Act as the action might be construed as retaliation for the employee’s intention to put up a union or report some perceived wrong doings. It is more advisable to write her up for the absence during the peak season and talk to her about her talk of organizing a union. Her immediate